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Here is an idea I’ve used before to help people practice to make disadvantages, advantages, and harms. I’m pretty sure Lydia Bode or Amy or Josiah somebody first came up with it the way we use it. It teaches deepening arguments and focusing on warrants.

Complete the Argument: Insert the content required to make the argument complete. Use the number of steps required.


  1. Russia has 1575 Fighter Jets
  2. Conclusion: The real problem is Russia’s lack of military funding
  3. Use of this Argument:

Possible Solution:

  1. Russia has 1575 fighter jets
  2. The U.S. has 3100 fighter jets
  3. Russia is investing in WMDs because they deter more effectively
  4. Conclusion: The real problem is Russia’s lack of military funding
  5. Use of this argument: Russia is pursuing WMDs out of fear, not aggression

Here are a few to get you started:

  1. The Jackson-Vanik Amendment is Symbolic only
  2. The U.S. should abolish the JV Amendment
  3. Use of this Argument:
  1. Russia’s internal corruption can’t even be controlled by their government
  2. Human trafficking is a result of internal corruption
  3. Use of this argument:
  1. Many Americans disagree with their government’s foreign policy
  2. Our foreign exchange programs no longer succeed in championing U.S. interests abroad
  3. Conclusion: The U.S. should not engage Russia with educational scholarships
  4. Use of this argument:
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